Thursday, September 3, 2020
What is Foreshadowings What is Foreshadowing? Also 10 Gripping Ways to Foreshadow Anticipating is a scholarly gadget wherein a writer gives perusers indications about what will happen later in the story. Anticipating is regularly utilized in the beginning periods of a novel or toward the beginning of a section, as it would subtlety be able to make strain and set perusers' assumptions about how the story will unfurl. For example, a puzzle novel may utilize anticipating in an early section by referencing something that appears to be insignificant - yet is really a clue...By the finish of this article, journalists will know the key to making grasping page-turners. Could it be any more obvious? You realize something is going to occur, yet you donÃ¢â¬â¢t yet know how it will happen - and itÃ¢â¬â¢s the Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ that issues. The Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ is the thing that connects the starting as far as possible or, for this situation, the prologue to the end. The Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ is the data that perusers need, and portending vows to in the long run offer it to th em.Now that weÃ¢â¬â¢ve ideally provoked your curiosity with our own portion of hinting, letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk regarding why this abstract gadget is such a key apparatus in an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s munititions stockpile. Sorts of foreshadowingThere are the same number of approaches to portend as there are stories to tell, so the potential outcomes are unfathomable. In any case, head to the library and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll likely discover two general classifications of anticipating in books: direct and indirect.Direct portending happens when a result is legitimately alluded to or shown. It gives perusers a chunk of data, inciting them to need more.Indirect portending happens when a result is in a roundabout way alluded to or prosecuted. It inconspicuously gestures at a future occasion, yet is regularly just obvious to perusers after that result or occasion has occurred.Pretty clear, isn't that so? Presently letÃ¢â¬â¢s see a couple of instances of the previous in real life. What is portending? Furthermore 10 grasping approaches to portend Direct hinting examples1) The NarratorWe saw this model in the presentation of this very post. Basically: the individual recounting to the story gives perusers key data, however forgets about setting or other details.Take this initial line from Lauren OliverÃ¢â¬â¢s Before I Fall:Ã¢â¬Å"They state that not long before you pass on as long as you can remember streaks before your eyes, yet thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not how it occurred for me.Ã¢â¬ What we know: The storyteller is dead. What we need to know:Ã How did they die?The key to this sort of anticipating is that it needs to incorporate data that is, well, key to the story. What it must forget about is the way itÃ¢â¬â¢s key to the story. Consider it an individual greeting from the storyteller to the peruser to keep reading.2) The Pre-SceneA blessing shared among individuals who have the uncanny capacity to anticipate the endings of stories is an eye for the Ã¢â¬Å"pre-scene.Ã¢â¬ These scenes show something that will assume a significan t job later on - and they normally happen as a short, restrained adaptation of the primary event.For model, in the principal half Of Mice and Men, Carlson is persuaded that an old canine ought to be put down so it can have a speedy passing and end to its anguish. He consents, guaranteeing the procedure is as easy as could be expected under the circumstances, provoking Candy to trust in George:Ã¢â¬Å"I oughtta of shot that hound myself, George. I shouldn't oughtta of let no more unusual shoot my dog.Ã¢â¬ What we know: The dogÃ¢â¬â¢s demise is significant. What we need to know:Ã Why is this huge and when will we discover out?At the finish of the novel, when a deadly lynch crowd are on the chase for Lennie, George starts conversing with Lennie about the ranch they will one day own, painting a quiet picture. At that point, in a scene that echoes CarlsonÃ¢â¬â¢s stopping the dogÃ¢â¬â¢s enduring, George executes Lennie - accepting itÃ¢â¬â¢s substantially more tolerant to go on a ccount of a friend.3) The Name DropIf somebody let you know, Ã¢â¬Å"Tomorrow IÃ¢â¬â¢m heading off to my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s house,Ã¢â¬ you likely wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a favorable opinion of it. However, in the event that somebody let you know, Ã¢â¬Å"Tomorrow IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to Reedsy Mansion,Ã¢â¬ youÃ¢â¬â¢d most likely need to know more.Similarly, by coolly name dropping a spot, thing, or individual in your story, you connote to perusers that this substance is important.See this model in real life in the main portion of The Hunger Games:Ã¢â¬Å"When I wake up, the opposite side of the bed is cold. My fingers loosen up, looking for PrimÃ¢â¬â¢s warmth however finding just the harsh canvas front of the sleeping pad. She more likely than not had awful dreams and move in with our mom. Obviously, she did. This is the day of the reaping.Ã¢â¬ What we know: Something called the harvesting is going to occur, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s bad dream actuating. What we need to know:Ã Well, what is the procuring? What are a portion of your preferred instances of direct anticipating? Which cases of aberrant portending passed you by however appeared well and good toward the end? Leave us your contemplations or inquiries in the remarks underneath!
Posted by Aubrie Sisson at 4:49 AM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Research organizations what are they and the errand of approach analyasis - Essay Example The research organizations additionally give data to writers who go about as a decent channel to advance the requirements of the arrangement clients. This implies the research organizations have the limit of making a chain of systems that help in intercession of the job of the legislature and that of the general population in building trust in the open authorities (McGann, 2011). The research organizations have additionally been demonstrated to change the thoughts and issues introduced in strategy issues through encouraging discussions on the current issues (McGann, 2011). This implies a gathering for the trading of musings is given the assistance of research organizations and at last a usage of the arrangements proposed particularly after discussion with all the concerned gatherings. The research organizations would then be able to be demonstrated to assume the job of voicing approach related issues in banters on arrangement issues. McGann, J. (2011).Ã Think Tanks: The Global, Regional and National Dimensions. In Think Tanks in Policy Making: Do They Matter, ed Andrew Rich et al., 8-15.Ã Shanghai: FriedrichÃ Ebert Stiftung, Briefing Paper Special
Posted by Aubrie Sisson at 6:13 PM
Friday, August 21, 2020
Discussion and group paper - Essay Example This becomes the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy altogether. This paper will audit a portion of the benefits of the travel industry on both the political and monetary front. The political circumstance in the Philippines is faulty right now. In any case, the administration bolsters the travel industry since they profit by all the remote capital that streams into the nation (Lumang, 2008). A portion of the political class that bolsters the travel industry offer the voyagers with convenience during their remain. It is commensurate that the political class be included. This is on the grounds that they offer solace to each one of those that desire to head out to the Philippines for occasion, and business. There are foundations run by government officials which offer visitors with the best administrations, thus giving them an opportunity to have more vacationers in a year. Another favorable position that accompanies the travel industry for the political front is the laws that are set up that advance the travel industry as a speculation. There are laws despite everything being passed in parliament for there to be visitor zones. This implies government officials will push for the structure of cafÃ©s, resorts, and lodgings to profit the visitors. The proposed laws additionally offer motivators to potential speculators since they offer the exclusion of obligations set on certain products and enterprises (Lumang, 2008). Financial specialists might need to carry their cash-flow to the Philippines since it is productive. The travel industry is rounding up billions of dollars into the nation. Soon, it is apparent the travel industry will be answerable for the immediate work of in excess of 4,000,000 Filipinos in the nation (Lumang, 2008). The Philippines is promoting itself as the favored goal for every single remote national. In the event that individuals are eager to put resources into the nation, it is just a short time before the nation understands a portion of its most wanted dreams. The same number of individuals are resigning to the Philippines, it is offering another assortment of pleasantries for them.
Posted by Aubrie Sisson at 3:55 PM
Tuesday, June 9, 2020
The novel Monkey Beach, written by Eden Robinson, can be called an example of what Thomas King has named associational literature (King p.14) because, even though the novel includes issues which are directly connected to the impact and repercussions of colonialism, it does not place the colonizer at the center of the story. Essentially it is not in reaction to the issues of colonization but is instead a construction of Aboriginal based reality. The novel is written using a traditional orature style which emphasizes an Aboriginal worldview instead of revolving itself around a non-Native expectations concerning the glamour and /or horror of Native life. ( King p.14) The first page of Monkey Beach opens with the crows speaking to Lisa in Haisla. (p.1) Nobody else in her family shares her shamanic abilities and her mother teases her about it being a sign that she needs Prozac. (p.3) This introduction represents the overarching and repeating issue that weaves throughout the entire novel: the difference between Native and non-Native realities. Robinson grounds the novel in the Native mindset first by using the traditional oral style of including information and teaching as part of the storytelling and second by using the Haisla language itself as an integral component of the narrative. Lisas grandmother, Ma-ma-oo, represents traditional Haisla knowledge and culture.Following the Aboriginal worldview, shenot only acts as Lisas mentor throughout the novel but she rootsthe Native perspective into reality.Ma-ma-oo speaks the Haisla language, harvests the traditional foods, and teaches the old ways through her stories and actions.While Lisa and Ma-ma-oo are out digging up Oxasuli, a powerful medicine [that]protects you from ghost, spirits, [and] bad medicine (p.151), she tells her granddaughter about the tree spirita little man with red hair[who would] lead medicine men to the best trees. (p152)This is the same little man who has been visiting Lisa since she was a very young girl.This moment in the novel creates a space for the readers reality to shift from the non-Native to the Native perspective by allowing room for, and the possibility of, an alternative reality to the Eurocentric one.The contrasting and competing of realities becomes especially dramatic during the s cene with the psychiatrist, Ms. Jenkins.Lisa is able to see the thingwhispering in [Ms Jenkins] earits legs wrapped around her waist (p. 273) and at the same time she gives Ms. Jenkins the normal answers, saying only what the doctor wants to hear.It becomes clear that the non-Native view can notconsider the issue of spirits and visions beyond allegory, symbol, or symptom. (Castriciano p.805)Robinson uses the power of traditional knowledge to emphasize the reality of Lisamaries experiences. Rather than using these supernatural beings as a means to express repressed collective trauma [and the] dark stain of colonialism (Mrak), a psycho-analytical interpretation that David Gaertner calls white noise of European culture (p.47), she presents these creatures as real and in doing so maintains the reality of the Haisla culture itself. In the traditional style of oral history and storytelling, Robinsonincorporates education as a main component of the novel and teaches the reader both directly and indirectly about Aboriginal knowledge, ceremony, and attitudes. She gives detailed informationabout where to find, and how to process, traditional foods such as qoalhm, oolichan, native berries and others. She offers an inside view of rituals, like how to speak with the dead, and her characters demonstrate the Aboriginal conception of the natural world as living being by showing respect, giving offerings, and, as Lisas mother says, being polite and introducing yourself. (pg.112) The world is portrayed not as passive screen on which to project our drama but as a beautiful land and seascape that is not only a breathing character teeming with life, but is also inhabited by ghosts, spirits, and animals who interact with the human world. (Bridgeman) Robinson uses the traditional Haisla names as she speaks about the world. The u se of the Aboriginal language reinforces the idea that two different world views are occupying the same space and it emphasizes the Haisla culture as autonomous and complete. Robinson explains that Haisla has many sounds that donÃ¢â¬â¢t exist in English, so its not possible to spell the words using English conventions English sounds are formed using the front of the mouth, while Haisla uses mainly the back. (p.193) This supports the idea that there are not only different realities at play but that English itself is incapable of expressing or capturing what is Haisla. As Ma-ma-oo teaches Lisa stories of bgwus and the shapeshifters she says to really understand the old storiesyou had to speak Haisla. (p.211) Throughout the entire novel the power of words, names, and language are emphasized.When Lisa attends her uncle Micks funeral, his relative Barry is singing an honour song, [but she is not able to] understand anything they [are] singing. (p.141)The same thing happens when she accompanies Ma-ma-oo to Octopus Beds where they build a fire to give offerings and speak with Ba-ba-oo, Lisas long dead grandfather.Lisa is still an outsider because she has not yet learned her own language, she still is living in the European space, in the front of the mouth.It is not until the end of the novel that Lisa finally is able to hear and understand the Haisla language, to comprehend and integrate her own heritage.Instead of ignoring or avoiding the Haisla reality, Lisa embraces it in an attempt to find out what has happened to Jimmy.When she cuts her hand to feed the spirits on Monkey Beach she makes the transitionfrom one reality into the other.In this final scene Lisa is able to journey into The Lan d of the Dead and use the information that her grandmother has taught her.Here she sees and speaks with her grandparents and her uncle Mick, she also has a vision of what happened to her brother Jimmy, and, most significantly, she is able to understand the words the people are singing even though they are in Haisla. (p.373)In this moment of understanding the transformation from one reality to the other has been completed. Robinsons novel can be called associational because it presents a narrative in which the protagonist struggles to negotiate between the opposingworldviews of Native and non-Native and shifts away from a typically Western psychological interpretation of meaning, a binary dichotomy between good and evil, and a projected clear cut happy ending.It is Robinsons use of traditions and her continued framing of Lisamaries visions as reality which keeps the novel from sliding into what Joan Thomas has called a glorious Northern Gothic taleand keeps the novel firmly planted in the back of the mouth. Works Cited Andrews, Jennifer. Ã¢â¬Å"Native Canadian Gothic Refigured: Reading Eden RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Monkey Beach.Ã¢â¬ Essays on Canadian Writing 73 (Spring 2001): 1Ã¢â¬â24. Bridgeman, J. M. Ã¢â¬Å"Witnessing Creation.Ã¢â¬ Rev. of Monkey Beach, by Eden Robinson. January Magazine March 2000. 26 Jan. 2008 http://januarymagazine.com/fiction/monkeybeach.html. Castriciano, Jodey. Learning to Talk with Ghosts: Canadian Gothic and the Poetics of Haunting in Eden Robinsons Monkey BeachIn: University of Toronto Quarterly. Vol. 75 Issue 2. 2006, p801-813. 13p Language: English, Database: Project MUSE Gaertner, David.Something in Between Monkey Beach and the Haisla Return of the Return of the Repressed. By: Canadian Literature , Summer2015, Issue 225, p47-63, 17p. Publisher: Canadian Literature King, Thomas. Ã¢â¬Å"Godzilla vs. Post-Colonial.Ã¢â¬ World Literature Written in English, 30.2 (1990) 10Ã¢â¬â16. Mrak,Anja. Trauma and Memory in Magical Realism: Eden RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Monkey Beach as Trauma NarrativeIn: [sic], Vol 3, Iss 2 (2013); University of Zadar, 2013. Language: Croatian; English, Database: Directory of Open Access Journals Robinson, Eden. Monkey Beach. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000. Roupakia, Lydia Efthymia. On Judging with Care and the Responsibility of an Heir: Reading Eden Robinsons Monkey BeachIn: University of Toronto Quarterly. Vol. 81 Issue 2. 2012, p279-296. 18p Language: English, Database: Project MUSE Thomas, Joan. Ã¢â¬Å"Glorious Northern Gothic.Ã¢â¬ Rev. of Monkey Beach, by Eden Robinson. The Globe and Mail 22 Jan. 2000: D9.
Posted by Aubrie Sisson at 1:01 AM
Sunday, May 17, 2020
People often perceive the truth in numerous ways. Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice s Adventures in Wonderland, illustrates this as one of the many themes in the novel. Carroll a very intelligent man, often known by his real name: Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. At the age of twelve, he attended Richmond Grammar School a well known public school. Most of his publications included math books. Dodgson came from a family with eight younger siblings, which enabled him to develop the knack of amusing young children. Consequently, Dodgson was also known as the most outstanding child photographer during the 19th century. Although Dodgson was a busy man, he managed to write many novels. One of his most prominent novels is AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventures inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Alice, a curious little girl, always looks forward to meeting new people and discovering new places. Alice at the moment was confused and worried about locating the little golden key to enter the garden. When the rabbit comes by Alice tries to ask him for help, but the rabbit completely ignores her. Because Alice is sensitive, Ã¢â¬Å" her eyes filled with tearsÃ¢â¬ (Carroll 26). At that moment Alice is so upset that Ã¢â¬Å"[she] even wishes she were back homeÃ¢â¬ (Blake 2). For Alice not being acknowledged by others causes her to feel awful about herself. For this reason, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude changes and she quickly burst into tears. Thus, Alice displays how her attitude immediately changes when she feels lonely. Alice is subject to loneliness throughout the whole novel, on numerous occasions she tries to fit in with the creatures, and her attitude quickly changes with these encounters. She wanders around Wonderland, looking for others to talk to. Alice comes upon a tea party and decides to join them. She is always looking Ã¢â¬Å" to play along civilly Ã¢â¬Å" (Blake 4 ). Although they are not friendly to her and cried out Ã¢â¬Å" No room! No room! Ã¢â¬ (Carroll 79). Even though there was plenty of room. Alice continues to join the tea partiers, because of her desperate need to converse with them. Throughout the tea party, they continue to be rude to her, so she decides to leave. Seeing that, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s need for company causes her the need toShow MoreRelatedNonsense Is Defined by Its Inability to be Defined Lewis Carroll and Edward Lears Alice in Wonderland521 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagestechniques of style, structuralization and various motifs. Authors such as Lewis Caroll in Alice and Won derland and Edward LearÃ¢â¬â¢s The Complete Nonsense of Edward Lear use such techniques to invoke the language of nonsense as well as to create nonsense within their writing. Both Lewis Carroll and Edward Lear use the language of nonsense is also defined by paradoxes, the play on stereotypes, and the usage of polysemy. Lewis Carroll demonstrates paradoxes within Alice and Wonderland as Alice is tossedRead More The Mathematical Aspects of Lewis Carrolls Alice in Wonderland1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Mathematical Aspects of Lewis Carrolls Alice in Wonderland The story Alice in Wonderland was written about a little girl named Alice who was a child of the dean of the Church of Christ. Alice Liddell was the one who convinced Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) to write down the verbal story originally known as Alices Adventure Underground.Actually, the book is known by several different names, Alices Hours in Elfand,Alices Adventures in Wonderland, and Alice in Wonderland.I found it interestingRead MoreAlices Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll2354 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesis Charles Lutwidge Dodgson also known as Lewis Carroll. Lewis is acknowledged as one of the best writers that have ever lived; he is also well appreciated in the English culture. Carroll was born on January 27, 1832, in Morphany Lane in the village of Daresbury England. Carroll was the third oldest son of the Reverend Charles Dodgson and Frances Jane Lutwidge. Carroll belonged to a family of eleven children where he was the third oldest. Lewis Carroll childhood was pleasant. He was always fullRead More Lewis Carrolls Through the Looking Glass Essay3377 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesLewis Carrolls Through the Looking Glass Ã¢â¬Å"If it was so, it might be; and if it were so, it would be; but as it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t, it ainÃ¢â¬â¢t. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s logic,Ã¢â¬ according to Tweedledee, a character in Lewis CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s famous childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s work Through the Looking Glass (Complete Works 181). Of course, Lewis Carroll is most well known for that particular book, and maybe even more so for the first Alice book, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventures in Wonderland. The connection between Lewis Carroll and logic is lessRead MoreJ. M. Barrie s Peter Pan And Lewis Carroll s Alice s Adventure Essay2118 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesJ. M. BarrieÃ¢â¬â¢s Peter Pan and Lewis CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventure in Wonderland-Comparison Analysis In what follows is a comparison analysis from the original historical text of, J.M BarrieÃ¢â¬â¢s Peter Pan and Lewis CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventure in Wonderland that have both been adapted to film providing examples of similarities as well as the differences. Firstly, J.M. BarrieÃ¢â¬â¢s Peter Pan and Lewis CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventure in Wonderland are both childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature which resonates with children asRead MoreMarxist and Semiotic Analysis of the Matrix3768 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesto the science fiction genre and revolves around a young man by the name of Thomas Anderson who is on a quest to discover what the mysterious Matrix is. The movie draws inspiration from a Japanese anime known as Ghost in a Shell. The Wachoski brothers incorporated many signs and symbols into the movie relating to Christianity, Greek mythology and Marxism. It contains several references to the book Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll. There is much that can be interpreted by reading in betweenRead More Siobhan SomervilleÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Passing through the Closet in Pauline E. HopkinsÃ¢â¬â¢s Contending Forces2347 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesinstitution of marriage in relation to the African-American female, I do not believe the argument is as polarized as a difference between homosexual and heterosexual attraction in relation to politics between the sexes. Instead, I would argue that the very ambiguity of sexuality within the text serves to comment on a larger issue of what makes a woman female and the importance of intimate bonds between women in society. The most important piece of textual evidence in SomervilleÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is the atticRead MoreHalo Effect Essay2917 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesthe perception of a positive trait in a person or product positively influences further judgments about traits of that person or products by the same manufacturer. One of the more common halo effects is the judgment that a good looking person is intelligent and amiable. There is also a reverse halo effect whereby perception of a negative or undesirable trait in individuals, brands, or other things influences further negative judgments about the traits of that individual, brand, etc. If a personRead MoreLangston Hughes Research Paper25309 Words Ã |Ã 102 PagesHughes, in Toluca, Mexico. Langston had not seen his father since he was a small child, and he was excited about making the trip. However, during this visit, no affectionate bond would develop between Langston and Jim. Jim Hughes was a cold, difficult man, who was driven by ambition to make money and achieve respect. He had moved to Mexico to avoid segregation and racial injustice in the United States. As the manager of an electric company and owner of a ranch and mines, Jim expressed contempt for blackRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pages.............................................................................................. 248 Fallacy of Circular Reasoning........................................................................................................... 250 Straw Man Fallacy.............................................................................................................................. 251 False Dilemma Fallacy........................................................................................
Posted by Aubrie Sisson at 11:02 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Incarceration on individuals can either have a negative or positive effect on the outcome of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. There are many different trails that people go through when they are incarcerated. Depending on their situations, it can either help change them for the better or take them backwards. The question is does being incarcerated affect recidivism? There are three reasons why incarceration is important. The first reason of incarceration is the purpose of punishing the offender. It is a way for the criminal justice system to punish individuals as a result of their consequences. Judges will incorporate a type of treatment and rehabilitation for the individual. Secondly, incarcerating will provide treatment for the offenders. The point of providing treatment is to manage the condition before entering an effective rehabilitation stage. Thirdly, rehabilitation will support in restoring the condition of the offender. While the individual will be under constant watch, it will make it easier to monitor the results of their behavior. It has been in debate whether or not longer sentences reduce or increase recidivism. There has been research that states longer sentences are capable of both increasing and reducing recidivism. The pros of long sentences will help people who need more time to adjust their behavior. The short sentences are able to provide quick treatment for individuals who realize their behavior has been inappropriate. Specific deterrence is a method of punishment inShow MoreRelatedAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAccording to a study by The Pew, more than 2.7 million children have an incarcerated parent. The following consequences are often underestimated and undetectable. Incarcerated parents are extremely detrimental to the well-being of the children involved. Minors involved with the arrest of their parents often suffer more complications than someone without an incarcerated parent. Foremost, these minors are more likely to have attention problems like Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention DeficitRead MoreSynthesis Essay- Juvenile Incarceration Into Adult Prisons1414 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages10/21/15 Pd.3 Synthesis Essay- Juvenile Incarceration into Adult Prisons Childhood is a time in which memories are created, adventures are explored and social awareness begins to develop. The events that occur during childhood are pivotal in the development of a healthy and substantial life. However, what if those experiences were taken from a child? What would the outcome be if a child could not experience what it is like to be young? Juvenile incarceration strips a person of their childhood andRead MoreThe Sentencing Policies For Crimes1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessentencing policies for crimes, primarily drug crimes, in America, the effect this change would have in the poor communities were impossible to imagine. The policies which were changed to get tougher on drug crimes on the federal level followed with mass incarceration in the prison system. This was especially true with young African American males in largely poor communities. So these policies not only created a mass incarceration but also racially targeted certain race in America. These pro ceduresRead MoreAttachment Theory And Family Systems Theory Essay971 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhen a parent is incarcerated, we often think about the negative impacts that it leaves on the child. However, what is often overlooked are the negative effects that the incarceration of one partner can have on the attachment and parenting styles of both partners. When a father is incarcerated the mother becomes the primary caregiver, causing a stress. This stress often impacts the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s attachment with her child and the parenting style. Likewise, the father begins to feel a loss of control, lowerRead MoreThe Effects Of High Incarceration On The United States879 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA. Societal Effects From Increasing Alienated Population The vast societal effects from mass incarceration have caused an increasingly alienated population to form in the U.S., which can be broadly classified in the dual areas of lasting effects and impacts to the family unit. First, the lasting effects of high incarceration rates are that they impact the rights of the convict, particularly African Americans. For example, noted civil rights attorney Michelle Alexander posits that the longRead MoreAmerica Should Not Afford For Nonviolent Criminals Essay1741 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesexcellent alternative to the high cost of incarceration while shifting the financial burden to the offender. The costs of incarceration continue to rise. In 2013, a three-year prison sentence cost over $37,000 according to the New York Times, while a probation sentence would have cost only $6,770 (Sowell). In other words, incarceration costs taxpayers thirty-three dollars and seventy-nine cents a day for each offender. However, for fiscal year 2014-2015, incarceration costs were seventy-three dollars andRead MoreThe Impact Of Mass Incarceration On African Americans1019 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmerican youth will experience a parentÃ¢â¬â¢s incarceration. Research has shown that children of incarcerated parents experience emotional problems, socioeconomic problems, and cognitive disturbances (Miller, 2007). In this paper, I will discuss the impact of mass incarceration in the African American community and its effect on African American children. Incidence and Prevalence Until the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s America was on par with Germany and France in incarceration rates (Campbell, Vogel, Williams, 2015) Read MoreThe War On Drugs And Mass Incarceration Essay1439 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction The War on Drugs and Mass Incarceration have been two very well-known topics of society. While these have taken place during the Cold War, there is still a continuance in them today. The impact that has been left on society from these issues have stuck around, while mass incarceration is still of talk today. War on Drugs The War on Drugs not only has many acts that have been in place due to it, but there has been a domino effect with other topics. The War on Drugs has become a complicatedRead MoreThe Importance Of Family Bonds And Support995 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessystem affects children by at staggering rates in our country. Although not every prisoner has children, one can assume that half of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s prisoners have at least one child. This simple deduction would leave 3,425,000 with an incarcerated parent. During childhood, the impact a parent has on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional and mental shapes their daily lives. When a child faces life with an incarcerated parent, they face separation for a period of months to years. Given the amount of children affected byRead MoreRace, Incarceration, And American Values Essay1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChris Brown 11/10/2016 Anth 1100 Megan Tucker Race, Incarceration, and American Values Race, Incarceration and American Values explains how incarceration is a legalized form of genocide that is slowly destroying the fiber of African American communities. Glenn Loury, along with Pamela Karian, Tommie Shelby and Loic Wacquant discuss how America has let fear and greed cause a inequitable landscape for its inhabitants who have unfortunately been born on the wrong side of the hill. The principals of
Posted by Aubrie Sisson at 7:13 PM
Bill Gates Ã¢â¬â Strategic Thinker Leader? Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to explore the published work on strategic leadership in order to develop an inventory of qualities, skills and behaviours that define and explain the concept of strategic leadership. A full review of literature on this topic aims to shed light on this definition. Having discussed and defined this concept the report will then focus on Bill Gates, former CEO of the Microsoft Corporation, with the aim of answering the following question. Is Bill Gates a Strategic Thinker and Leader? Introduction Throughout history we will recall that in the past, the word leader conjured up visions of an almost mythical figure astride a warhorse, slaying dragons or single-handedly rallying troops to achieve victory over superior foes. These leaders projected their authority so that others would follow; they could do any task better than their followers. They achieved success through personal tenacity, brute strength, and physical boldness, sometimes at the cost of their own lives. Much of the initial work in leadership theory revolved around the idea of identifying the traits of popular political and military heroes such as Caesar, Wellington, Roosevelt and Churchill. However, the problem with the Ã¢â¬Ëgreat manÃ¢â¬â¢ approach was that no congruent body of traits could be identified, that much of leadership success was evidently dependent upon the particular situation. Nevertheless, the tabloid press helps us to think of the corporate leader as the great man. For instance we often read of Bill Gates or Jack Welch as if they were primarily responsible for many years of success at Microsoft and General Electric. Although both were unarguably highly effective chief executives, what is it that drove these men and their companies to their success? What is Strategic Thinking? Many theorists say the ability to think strategically is the key to leadership success. While vision and results may be outputs of strategic thinking, the ability to think strategically involves much more. One definition is that of (Liedtka 1998) who stated that strategic thinking is an individual activity, but one that is supported by organizational contexts and dialogue. Strategic thinking, to some it is about creativity and to others analytical. Mintzberg (1994) referred to it as a synthesizing process that utilizes creativity and intuition, whilst Porter (1987) stated that good strategic planning was a necessary contributor to strategic thinking. Hanford (1995), states that it requires taking a high-level, long-term view that includes reflection about the past as well as creativity regarding the future. According to Stumpf (1989), strategic thinking involves an interrelated set of skills encompassing; motivating, controlling, planning, delegating and setting objectives. These in turn influence the leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to Ã¢â¬ ¢ Know the business markets Manage subunit rivalry Ã¢â¬ ¢ Find and overcome threats Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stay on Strategy Ã¢â¬ ¢ Be an entrepreneurial force Ã¢â¬ ¢ Accommodate adversity This supports the definition provided by (Bonn 2004). That strategic thinking is a way of solving problems that combines both rational and convergent approaches with creative and divergent thought processes. We will see late r how Gates epitomized Stumpfs theory. What is Strategic Leadership? Strategic Leadership is more than just strategy and planning. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about handling the human element as well as the task issues and doing so in such a way that engages people instead of alienating them. People in organisations particularly have a number of basic needs, one of which is some idea of certainty about the future. Effective strategic leaders provide that certainty by having a clear vision and workable strategies for bringing that future into reality. Vision is a key facet in the ability to think strategically. Research by Collins and Porras (1998) stressed the necessity for leaders to have a vision and beliefs about the desired future and outcome. This links to the views of Senge (1990) who stated that a genuine vision is Ã¢â¬Å"a calling rather than simply a good ideaÃ¢â¬ (p. 142). The ability to share this vision helps to provide a sense of direction and meaning to the decision making process (Liedtka 1998). Liedtka (1998) also recognises the need for hypothesizing. Strategic thinking has to be hypothesis driven which again links us to the need for creativity along with analysis. Hypothesis testing involves Ã¢â¬Å" What ifÃ¢â¬ ¦? Ã¢â¬ (creative) followed by Ã¢â¬Å"IfÃ¢â¬ ¦thenÃ¢â¬ (critical analysis). This ability to use causes and effect transcends leadership thinking to another level. Leadership at the strategic level is about setting the direction for the organisation as a whole, getting policy and strategy right and making things happen. It frequently involves organising and reorganising the way things operate in the organisation and relating the organisation to other organisations and society as a whole. Effective strategic leaders, in the words of Prof. John Adair, need to Ã¢â¬Ërelease the corporate spiritÃ¢â¬â¢. Literature Review Over the past 10-15 years research on leadership theory and has provided considerable support for the effectiveness of transformational and charismatic leadership in organisations. The focus of such leadership models centers on the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s creation, communication, and implementation of a vision. Vision as defined by Larwood and Falbe, 1995, and Strange and Mumford, 2002, is a highly desirable and vivid future organisational state that motivates followers, as cited in Groves, 2005. Infact, most current academics argue that exemplary leaders are described by their followers as visionary and inspirational (Rafferty and Griffin, 2004; Bass and Avolio, 1994; Conger, 1999 in Groves, 2005), while recent empirical studies demonstrate the powerful effects of visionary leadership at the individual, group, and organisation levels. Beginning as early as the late 1980s, leadership academics have examined emotional Intelligence skills as key predictors of effective visionary leadership. Empirical studies by Howell and Frost (1989), Holladay and Coombs (1994), Awamleh and Gardner (1999) and Den Hartog and Verburg (1997) assessed the relationships among vision content and communication style using trained actors as leader figures and students as followers reporting their perceptions of visionary leadership, charisma, and leadership effectiveness. The results of these studies and others generally support the relationship between an emotionally expressive communication style, characterised by eye contact, facial expressiveness, effective gestures, and vocal variety, and follower perceptions of visionary leadership, charisma, and leadership effectiveness. Emotional Intelligence appears to play a critical role in such leadership, suggesting that further study on the effects of emotional intelligence and leadership behavior is warranted. Mary Parker Follett (1987) describes leadership in holistic terms when she states that it is the leader who Ã¢â¬Å"can organise the experience of the group Ã¢â¬ ¦ it is by organising experience that we transform experience into power. The task of the chief executive is to articulate the integrated unity which his business aims to be Ã¢â¬ ¦ the ablest administrators do not merely draw logical conclusions from the array of facts Ã¢â¬ ¦ they have a vision of the futureÃ¢â¬ (quoted in ampden-Turner and Trompenaars, 1994, pp. 341-2). The model developed by Westley and Mintzberg (1989), suggested using drama to describe the process of visionary leadership, see figure 1. They suggested that the repetition stage, was the equivalent of rehearsal Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËcraftingÃ¢â¬â¢ the vision. Moving next to representation Ã¢â¬â whereby the leader communicates the vision which leads to buy from the audience Ã¢â¬â assistance stage. Later I will apply this framework to the work of Bill Gates Figure 1: Using drama to describe visionary leadership (adapted from Westley and Mintzberg, 1989) The Vision Communication Buy In Rehearsal Performance Audience Westley and Mintzbergs framework echoed that proposed by Bennis (Bennis and Nanus, 1985) who defines leadership in terms of the capacity to create a compelling vision, to translate it into action, and to sustain it. BennisÃ¢â¬â¢s 1985 study of 90 successful US public figures identified the following leadership skills: ? The ability to create a vision that others can believe in and adopt as their own. Such vision is long term in its orientation. The leader uses vision to build a bridge from the present to the future of the organization. ? The capacity to communicate that vision, and to translate it into practicalities. ? The ability to create a climate of organisational trust. Trust acts as emotional glue that unites leaders and followers in a common purpose, and helps achieve the outcomes of that vision. Further study by HickmanÃ¢â¬â¢s (1992) in his influential Mind of a Manager, Soul of a Leader was first published in 1990. Hickman (1992, p. 7) suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"the words Ã¢â¬ËmanagerÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËleaderÃ¢â¬â¢ are metaphors representing two opposite ends of a spectrum. ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢ tends to signify the more analytical, structured, controlled, deliberate, and orderly end of the continuum; while Ã¢â¬ËleaderÃ¢â¬â¢ tends to occupy the more experimental, visionary, flexible, uncontrolled, and creative endÃ¢â¬ . Hickman (1992) notes in this context McNamaraÃ¢â¬â¢s First Law of Analysis, which states tha t a person should Ã¢â¬Å"always start by looking at the grand total. Whatever problem you are studying, back off and look at it in the largeÃ¢â¬ . Hickman suggests that when a leader wishes to view this full picture, they may do so by simplifying it. The leader searches for patterns, connections, frameworks, or concepts that encompass all the confusing details surrounding a particular issue. As a result of this inclination, leaders tend to create simple visions or perceptions of reality, encouraging a philosophy of Ã¢â¬Ëkeep it simpleÃ¢â¬â¢ (KIS). Leaders use the detail to find patterns and frameworks in order to simplify the complexity. Hickman (1992) suggests that when leaders want to enhance their effectiveness, they pursue dreams because dreams represent new visions and new possibilities. Leaders may evaluate their performance on the basis of dreams achieved. Bill Gates personal response to the vision and innovation was through his Ã¢â¬Ëthink weeksÃ¢â¬â¢ (Heritage, 2006), whereby dedicated time is spent developing proposals, demonstrating the leadership buy-in that contributed to MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s success. It was, however, on one of these retreats, that when pushed for time, email was scrubbed off the priority list! Zaccaro 1996, categorised existing literature on leadership into four bodies of major theories: conceptual complexity, behavioral complexity, strategic management, and visionary/inspirational leadership. Visionary/inspirational leadership theories and models include theories of charismatic and transformational leadership. The common theme is that leaders develop and use their vision to structure and to motivate collective action. Considerable emphasis is placed on empowerment and development of human resources, especially subordinates. These models of leadership offer a number of characteristics that enhance a leaders ability to lead, including cognitive abilities (e. g. , creativity, reasoning skills, intelligence, verbal ability), self-confidence, motivation, propensity for risk, and social skills. One definition of vision comes from Burt Nanus, a well-known expert on the subject. Nanus defines a vision as a realistic, credible, attractive future for [an] organisation. Nanus goes on to say that the right vision for an organization, one that is a realistic, credible, attractive future for that organization, can accomplish a number of things for the organization: Ã¢â¬ ¢ It attracts commitment and energizes people Ã¢â¬ ¢ It creates meaning in workers lives Ã¢â¬ ¢ It establishes a standard of excellence Ã¢â¬ ¢ It bridges the present and the future Another definition of vision comes from Oren Harari: Vision should describe a set of ideals and priorities, a picture of the future, a sense of what makes the company special and unique, a core set of principles that the company stands for, and a broad set of compelling criteria that will help define organizational success. A FORMULA FOR VISIONARY LEADERSHIP Burt Nanus sums up his concepts with two simple formulas (slightly modified): STRATEGIC VISION X COMMUNICATION = SHARED PURPOSE SHARED PURPOSE X EMPOWERED PEOPLE X ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES X STRATEGIC THINKING = SUCCESSFUL VISIONARY LEADERSHIP Each one of the terms places unique and special demands on the strategic leader. If you can put these elements together in an organisation, and you have a good vision to start with, you should be well on the way to achieving excellence. Collins and Porras (1998), affirm: The function of a leader the one universal requirement of effective leadership is to catalyze a clear and shared vision of the organisation and to secure commitment to and vigorous pursuit of that vision. It is this definition of a leader I will use to answer the question of whether Bill Gates is a strategic thinker and leader. Findings Over the past 30 years much has been written and spoke about Bill Gates, some good, some bad and some ugly Ã¢â¬â what is without doubt is that for over 13 years he was the richest and most powerful man in the world. All this from the basic guiding vision of Ã¢â¬Å"Every business and household must have a computer and must run Microsoft softwareÃ¢â¬ Nanus describes visionary leadrship like this: A vision portrays a fictitious world that cannot be observed or verified in advance and that, in fact, may never become reality (emphasis added). However, if it is a good mental model, it shows the way to identify goals and how to plan to achieve them. Look at Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt: they said, This is what itÃ¢â¬â¢s going to be. And then they did it. Big, bold changes, forcefully articulated. When you get leaders who confuse popularity with leadership, who just nibble away at things, nothing changesÃ¢â¬ (Tichy and Sherman, 1994, p. 298). Ã¢â¬Å"In the new culture, the role of a leader is to express a vision, get buy-in, and implement it. That calls for open, caring relations with employees, and face-to-face communication. People who cannot convincingly articulate a vision wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be successfulÃ¢â¬ (Tichy and Sherman, 1994, p. 48). Gates was born and grew up in Seattle Washington USA. His father, William H. Gates II, was a prominent lawyer, his mother, Mary Maxwell Gates, served on the boad of directors for the Interstate Bank and the United Way. His parents recognised his intelligence and enrolled him in Lakeside, a private school known for its intense academic environment it was here that Bill Gates was first introduced to computers. Gates went on to Harvard University and while there teamed up with Paul Allen, a childhood friend and co-founder of Microsoft, to write a new ersion of Basic programming language for the first personnel computer the Altair 8800. The company was impressed with Gates and Allens work and licensed the soft ware resulting in Gates and Allen forming the company Microsoft to develop software for other companies. Bill dropped out of Harvard to spend more time on the new business. After dropping out of Harvard, Bill Gates and his partner Paul Allen set about revolutionizing the computer industry. Gates believed there should be a computer on every office desk and in every home. In 1975 the company Micro-soft was formed, which was an abbreviation of microcomputer software. It soon became simply Microsoft and went on to completely change the way people use computers. The success of Microsoft began with the MS-DOS computer operating system (OS) that Gates licensed to IBM, it is rumored that he Ã¢â¬ËborrowedÃ¢â¬â¢ this from a close colleague, also rumored that the initial meeting was set up by Bills mum. It was this licensing and stipulation that all applications must use MS-DOS to be compatible that give Microsoft the monopoly and set the standard for home computing. It was practically impossible to purchase a computer without Microsoft pre-installed, unless it was a Mac (another study! Microsoft used its position as keeper of the OS, as a way to destroy the opposition Ã¢â¬â it was about being the best, but being the only one. Over the next few years Microsoft was continually updating its OS and keeping ahead of the competition. Gates oversaw the invention and marketing of the MS-DOS operating system, the Windows operating interface, the Interne t Explorer browser, and a multitude of other popular computer products. Along the way he gained a reputation for fierce competitiveness and aggressive business savvy. During the 1990s rising Microsoft stock prices made Gates the worlds wealthiest man; Gates looked invincible, inconceivably he missed the rise of the internet. As late as 1993, Windows has no net access built in, Gates saw the Web and email as a passing fad. However, he turned it around within a year and released Windows 95 Ã¢â¬â 100% internet compatible. With his great success in the computer software industry also came many criticisms. With his ambitious and aggressive business philosophy, Gates or his Microsoft lawyers have been in and out of courtrooms fighting legal battles almost since Microsoft began. The Microsoft monopoly sets about completely dominating every market it enters through either acquisition, aggressive business tactics or a combination of them. Many of the largest technology companies have fought legally against the actions of Microsoft, including Apple Computer, Netscape and sun Microsystems. Bill brings to the company the idea that conflict can be a good thing, says Steve Ballmer, ex-Harvard colleague and current CEO of Microsft. Bill knows its important to avoid that gentle civility that keeps you from getting to the heart of an issue quickly. He likes it when anyone, even a junior employee, challenges him, and you know he respects you when he starts shouting back. The contentious atmosphere can promote flexibility. The Microsoft Network began as a proprietary online system like CompuServe or America Online. When the open standards of the Internet changed the game, Microsoft was initially caught flat-footed. Arguments ensued. Soon it became clear it was time to try a new strategy and raise the stakes. Gates turned his company around in just one year to disprove the maxim that a leader of one revolution will be left behind by the next. Rob Glaser, a former Microsoft executive who now runs the company that makes RealAudio, is an admirer who compliments Gates on his vision. But, he adds, Gates is pretty relentless. Hes Darwinian. He doesnt look for win-win situations with others, but for ways to make others lose. Success is defined as flattening the competition, not creating excellence. When he was at Microsoft, for example, Glaser says the atmosphere was like a Machiavellian poker game where youd hide things even if it would blindside people you were supposed to be working with. It comes down to the same traits that his psychologist noted when Gates was in sixth grade. In Bills eyes, says Glaser, hes still a kid with a startup whos afraid hell go out of business if he lets anyone compete. Esther Dyson, one of the industrys fabled gurus, is another longtime friend who shares such qualms. He never really grew up in terms of social responsibility and relationships with other people, she says. Hes brilliant but still childlike. He can be a fun companion, but he can lack human empathy. If we werent so ruthless, wed be making more creative software? Wed rather kill a competitor than grow the market?!? Conclusions In part Bill Gates fits into the frameworks provided by Westley and Mintzberg (1989) and Bennis (1985) with the ability to create and communicate his vision Ã¢â¬â however, his single-mindedness and obsessiveness with crushing the opposition led to a lack of trust and integrity. Bill Gates epitomizes the work of Stumpf (1989), throughout the early y ears Bill Gates was: Motivating Ã¢â¬â the desire to achieve his vision Controlling Ã¢â¬â the systematic way he monopolized home computing Planning Ã¢â¬â the calculated way that Microsoft became the OS of choice, Delegating and setting objectives Ã¢â¬â Involving key players in his mission In turn he achieved the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Knew the business markets Ã¢â¬ ¢ Managed subunit rivalry Ã¢â¬ ¢ Found and overcome threats Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stayed on Strategy Ã¢â¬ ¢ Became an entrepreneurial force Ã¢â¬ ¢ Accommodated adversity Thus, strategic vision is part style, part process, part content, and part context, while visionary leadership involves psychological gifts, sociological dynamics and the luck of timing. True strategic visionaries are both born and made, but they are not self-made. They are the product of the historical moment. This research suggests that, despite their great skills, it is a mistake to treat leaders such as Bill Gates as possessing superhuman qualities. He is the product of the times, of his followers, of his opportunities. As times and contexts change the visionaries of yesterday fade into obscurity, or worse, become the villains of today. His story is an extraordinary one. Windows may not be the best operating system in the World, but computers needed a standard and he and Microsoft provided it. If he hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t someone else undoubtedly would had but maybe not with the same degree of obsessiveness and drive. Affirming Collins and Porras (1998),: The function of a leader the one universal requirement of effective leadership is to catalyze a clear and shared vision of the organisation and to secure commitment to and vigorous pursuit of that vision. In short Bill Gates is a visionary thinker and leader of his time Ã¢â¬â but without the opportunity and IBMs millions would he have been able to take his chances. Since the turn of the decade Microsoft has had more failures than success; Google is on the march to become the Microsoft of the 21st Century. Further Study The effectiveness of long-term vision is crucial to the long-term health of any organisation. At all levels, leaders must make trade-off decisions, generally with the use of resources. Critical trade-offs reflect a choice between current effectiveness and projected future effectiveness , whether to do more research and development on a future, qualitatively superior software system, or to buy more of the available system; whether to make the investment in current technology or wait for the next quantum step. Each decision is surrounded by risk, imposed by cost and the uncertainty of future developments. Strategic leadership is a balancing act, a thin line between maximizing present effectiveness, and maximising future effectiveness, decisions that, to some extent, are mutually exclusive. Resources expended today in the wrong direction become a loss. This is why strategic vision is crucially important to organisations. Strategic leadership is a risky business. Strategic decisions are rarely clear-cut. There will always be uncertainties and often ambiguities. Contributing to the uncertainty is the fact that decisions must be made with some set of presumably valid assumptions in mind. However, strategic decisions may play out over long time spans: 10, 15, 20 years-or more. Word Count: 3572 Reference List Ambilie, T. M. (1998) How to kill creativity Harvard Business Review, September/October, pp. 77-87 Bass, B. M. and Avolio, B. J. (1994), Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. Bennis, W. and Nanus, B. (1985), Leaders: the Strategies for Taking Charge, Harper Row, New York, NY. Bonn, I. (2001) Developing strategic thinking as a core competency, Management Decision 39/1 pp. 63-70, MCB University Press Bonn, I. 2005) Improving strategic thinking: a multi-level approach, Leadership Organization Journal. Vol 26, No. 5 p. 337 Collins, J. C. and Porras, J. I (1998) Built to last Century Business, London Follett, M P. (1987), Freedom and Co-ordination: Lectures in Business Organization, Garland, New York, NY. Groves, K. S. (2005 ), Leader emotional expressivity,visionary leadership, and organizational change , Leadership Organization Development Journal Vol. 27 No. 7, 2006 pp. 566-583 Hampden-Turner, C. and Trompenaars, F. (1994), The Seven Cultures of Capitalism, Piatkus, London. Harari, O. 1994. Beyond the vision thing. Management Review (November): 29-31 Heritage, C. (2006), Microsoft: innovation through HRÃ¢â¬â¢s partnership, Melcrum Publishing Hickman, C. R. (1992), Mind of a Manager, Soul of a Leader, Wiley, New York, NY. Kaufman, R. (1991) Strategic Planning Plus: An Organizational Guide, Scott Foresman, Glenview, IL Kay, J. (1993), Foundations of Corporate Success, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Liedtka, J. (1998). Strategic thinking; can it be taught? , Long Range Planning, 31, (1), 120-129. Liedtka, J. (1998). Linking strategic thinking with strategic planning, Strategy and Leadership, October, (1), 120-129. Lynch, R (1997) Corporate Strategy, 2nd ed. FT Prentice Hall C. McLarney and Shelley Rhyno (1999). Mary Parker Follett: visionary leadership and strategic managemen t, Women in Management Review, Volume 14 . Number 7, 292-302 Mintzberg, Henry (1994). The rise and fall of strategic planning. New York: The Free Press. Mintzberg, Henry (1999). Ã¢â¬Å"Bees, flies, and CEOs; do we have too many bees making strategy and not enough flies? ,Ã¢â¬ Across The Board, January. Morden, T. (1997), Leadership as vision, Management Decision, 668Ã¢â¬â676 Ã © MCB University Press Nanus, Burt. Visionary Leadership: Creating a Compelling Sense of Direction For Your Organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1992. Porter, M. (1985), Competitive Advantage, The Free Press, New York, NY, . Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: the art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday/Currency. Senge, P. (1997). Through the eye of the needle in Gibson, Rowan ed. (1997) Rethinking the future: business, principles, competition, control, leadership, markets and the world, Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London. Stumpf, S. A. (1989) Strategic Management Skills Ã¢â¬â What are they? , Why are they needed? In review, Academy of Management Executive Tichy, N. M. nd Sherman, S. (1994), Control Your Own Destiny or Someone Else Will, Harper Business, New York, NY. Westley, F. and Mintzberg, H. (1989), Visionary leadership and strategic management, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 10, pp. 17-32. Zaccaro, S. J. 1996. Models and Theories of Executive Leadership: A Conceptual/Empirical Review and Integration. Alexandria, VA http://www. cmtpct. nhs . uk/documents/publications/RBUNNINGleadershipdev. pdf http://www. guardian. co. uk/technology/ http://www. mackido. com/history/gates_a_genius. html http://www. time. com/time/gates/cover0. html Bibliography Ambilie, T. M. (1998) How to kill creativity Harvard Business Review, September/October, pp. 77-87 Argyris, C. , Schon, D. (1978). Organizational learning: a theory of action perspective. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Bass, B. M. and Avolio, B. J. (1994), Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. Bennis, W. and Nanus, B. (1985), Leaders: the Strategies for Taking Charge, Harper Row, New York, NY. Bonn, I. (2001) Developing strategic thinking as a core competency, Management Decision 39/1 pp. 63-70, MCB University Press Bonn, I. 2005) Improving strategic thinking: a multi-level approach, Leadership Organization Journal. Vol 26, No. 5 p. 337 Collins, J. C. and Porras, J. I (1998) Built to last Century Business, London Drucker, P. F. (2002) Managing in the next society, Butterworth-Heineman Follett, M P. (1987), Freedom and Co-ordination: Lectures in Business Organization, Garland, New York, NY. Garratt, B. (1995), Developi ng strategic thought Ã¢â¬â Rediscovering the art of direction giving, McGraw-Hill, London Groves, K. S. (2005 ), Leader emotional expressivity,visionary leadership, and organizational change, Leadership Organization Development Journal Vol. 7 No. 7, 2006 pp. 566-583 Hampden-Turner, C. and Trompenaars, F. (1994), The Seven Cultures of Capitalism, Piatkus, London. Handford, P. (1995), Developing director and executive competencies in strategic thinking, in Garratt, B. (Ed. ), Developing strategic thought Ã¢â¬â Rediscovering the art of direction giving, McGraw-Hill, London Handy, C (1995) Gods of management, Arrow Books, London Harari, O. 1994. Beyond the vision thing. Management Review (November): 29-31 Heracleous, L. (1998). Strategic thinking or strategic planning, Long Range Planning, 31, (3), 481-487. Heritage, C. 2006), Microsoft: innovation through HRÃ¢â¬â¢s partnership, Melcrum Publishing Hickman, C. R. (1992), Mind of a Manager, Soul of a Leader, Wiley, New York, NY. Kaufman, R. (1991) Strategic Planning Plus: An Organizational Guide, Scott Foresman, Glenview, IL Kay, J. (1993), Foundations of Corporate Success, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Liedtka, J. (1998). Strategic thinking; can it be taught? , Long Range Planning, 31, (1), 120-129. Liedtka, J. (1998). Linking strategic thinking with strategic planning, Strategy and Leadership, October, (1), 120-129. Lynch, R (1997) Corporate Strategy, 2nd ed. , FT Prentice Hall C. McLarney and Shelley Rhyno (1999). Mary Parker Follett: visionary leadership and strategic management, Women in Management Review, Volume 14 . Number 7, 292-302 Mintzberg, Henry (1994). The rise and fall of strategic planning. New York: The Free Press. Mintzberg, Henry (1999). Ã¢â¬Å"Bees, flies, and CEOs; do we have too many bees making strategy and not enough flies? ,Ã¢â¬ Across The Board, January. Morden, T. (1997), Leadership as vision, Management Decision, 668Ã¢â¬â676 Ã © MCB University Press Nanus, Burt. Visionary Leadership: Creating a Compelling Sense of Direction For Your Organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1992. Porter, M. (1985), Competitive Advantage, The Free Press, New York, NY, . Rowley, J. (1999), Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËWhat is knowledge management? Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, Library Management, Vol. 20 No. 8, pp. 416-19 Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: the art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday/Currency. Senge, P. (1997). Through the eye of the needle in Gibson, Rowan ed. (1997) Rethinking the future: business, principles, competition, control, leadership, markets and the world, Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London. Stacy, R. (1992). Managing the Unknowable, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. Stumpf, S. A. 1989) Strategic Management Skills Ã¢â¬â What are they? , Why are they needed? In review, Academy of Management Executive Tichy, N. M. and Sherman, S. (1994), Control Your Own Destiny or Someone Else Will, Harper Business, New York, NY. Weick, E. (1995) Sensemaking in organizations, Sage Westley, F. and Mintzberg, H. (1989), Visionary leadership and strategic management, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 10, pp. 17-32. Wilson, Ian (1994) Ã¢â¬Å"Strategic Planning IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t Dead It ChangedÃ¢â¬ , Long Range Planning, 27 (4). Zaccaro, S. J. 1996. Models and Theories of Executive Leadership: A Conceptual/Empirical Review and Integration. Alexandria, VA
Posted by Aubrie Sisson at 12:52 AM